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The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World

Editor in Chief: John L. Esposito

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World focuses on the Islamic dimension of the Muslim experience in recent history, with background articles grounding the information in its historical context. Entries written by Muslim and non-Muslim scholars from around the world address political and social action from a multidisciplinary perspective, as well as the practice and theory of Islam in Muslim societies around the globe. Unlike more limited explorations of Islam, this work looks at societies in South and Southeast Asia, Europe, and the Americas, as well as in the Arab heartland, offering extensive comparative and systematic analyses of Islamic beliefs, institutions, movements, practices, and peoples on an international scale.

Topical categories covered include history and geography; schools of thought; religious beliefs; theology and philosophy; mysticism; religious practice, devotionalism, and ritual; religious law; politics; economics; culture and society; and biographies. Articles range from brief 500-word essays to major interpretive and synthetic treatments of topics such as the Islamic state, pilgrimage, law, marriage, and foreign relations. Related entries cover such topics as social and political movements, women, Muslim minorities, human rights, Islam in the West, and interreligious affairs.

Published by Oxford University Press, 1995.

Editorial Board

Editor in Chief

John L. Esposito, Professor of Religion and International Affairs and Director, Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding, Georgetown University

Editors

Shahrough Akhavi, Professor of International Studies, University of South Carolina
Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Professor of Islamic History, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
James P. Piscatori, Professor of International Politics, University of Wales
Abdulaziz Sachedina, Professor of Religious Studies, University of Virginia
Sharon Siddique, Director, Sreekumar-Siddique and Co., Ltd.; Formerly Acting Director, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Singapore
John O. Voll, Professor of History, University of New Hampshire
Fred R. von der Mehden, Albert Thomas Professor of Political Science, Rice University


A–B | C–E | F–J | K–O | P–S | T–Z | Maps

A–B

ʿAbbāsid Caliphate
ʿAbd Al-ʿazīz, Shāh
Abdalī Dynasty
ʿAbd Al-nāṣir, Jamāl
ʿAbd Al-qādir
ʿAbd Al-raḥmān, ʿā'ishah
ʿAbd Al-rāziq, ʿAlī
ʿAbd Al-razzāq Al-sanhūrī
Abd El-krim
Abdel Rahman, Omar
ʿAbduh, Muḥammad
Abdülhamid II
Abdurrahman Wahid
Abim
Ablutions
Abortion
Abū Dharr Al-ghifārī
ʿAdālah
Adat
Adoption
Aesthetic Theory
Afghānī, Jamāl Al-dīn Al-
Afghanistan
Afghan Mujāhidīn
African Languages and Literatures
Afshārid Dynasty
Afterlife
Aga Khan
Aga Khan Foundation
Agriculture
ʿAhd
Ahl Al-bayt
Ahl Al-ḥall Wa-al-ʿaqd
Ahl Al-kitāb
Aḥmad Barelwī, Sayyid
Aḥmadīyah
Aḥmad Khān, Sayyid
Aḥmad Sirhindī
Akhbārīyah
ākhūnd
Al-
ʿAlawī, Aḥmad Al-
ʿAlawid Dynasty
ʿAlawīyah
Albania
Alchemy
Algeria
Aligarh
ʿAlī Ibn Abī ṭālib
Al-khoei Benevolent Foundation
Allāh
ʿAllāl Al-fāsī, Muḥammad
All-India Muslim League
Almsgiving
Amal
Amān
Ameer Ali, Syed
Amīr
Amīr Al-mu'minīn
Anavatan Partisi
Angels
Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia
Anglo-Muhammadan Law
Anjuman
Anṣār
Apostasy
ʿAqīdah
Arabic
Arabic Literature
Arab-Israeli Conflict
Arab League
Arab Nationalism
Arab Socialism
Architecture
Arkān
Arkoun, Mohammed
ʿAṣabīyah
Asadābādī, Jamāl Al-dīn Al-
ʿāshūrā'
Astrology
Astronomy
ʿAtabāt
Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal
Australia and New Zealand
Authority and Legitimation
Avrupa Millî GörüŞ TeŞkilati
Awami League
Ayatollah
āzād, Abū Al-kalām
Azerbaijan
Azhar, Al-
Bāb
Bābism
Bahā' Allāh
Bahā'ī
Bahrain
Bakkā'ī Al-kuntī, Aḥmad Al-
Balkan States
Bangladesh
Banks and Banking
Bannā', ḥasan Al-
Barakah
Barelwī, Sayyid Aḥmad
Barelwīs
Basmachis
Baʿth Parties
Bayʿah
Bayramiye
Bazaar
Bāzargān, Mehdi
Bektāshīyah
Ben Badis
Bidʿah
Bigi, Musa Yarullah
Bint Al-shāṭi'
Biography and Hagiography
Birth Rites
Black Muslims
Blasphemy
Bohrās
Book Publishing
Borujerdi, Moḥammad ḥosayn
Bouhired, Djamila
Brazil
Brunei
Bukhara Khanate
Bunyād
Burhānuddīn, Sayyidnā Muḥammad
Burma

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C–E

Calendar
Caliph
Caliphate Movement
Calligraphy and Epigraphy
Camba
Cameroon
Canada
Capitalism and Islam
Capitulations
Carpets
Cassettes
Central Asian Literatures
Ceramics
Chad
Charitable Associations
Children
Children's Books and Cartoons
Chirāgh ʿalī
Chishtīyah
Christianity and Islam
Cinema
Circumcision
Citizenship
Class
Clitoridectomy
Clothing
Commercial Law
Communications Media
Communism and Islam
Congresses
Conseil National Des Français Musulmans
Consensus
Constitution
Constitutional Revolution
Contract Law
Conversion
Córdoba, Caliphate of
Cosmology
Creeds
Crimea Khanate
Criminal Law
Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi
Customs
Dāʿiyah
Dakwah
Dance
Dan Fo, Usuman
Dār Al-ḥarb
Dār Al-Islām
Dār Al-ṣulḥ
Dar Ul Arqam
Darul Islam
Daʿwah
Dawlah
Dawlah Al-islāmīyah, Al-
Democracy
Demokrat Parti
Deobandīs
Dervishes
Destour
Deviation
Devotional Music
Devotional Poetry
Dhikr
Dhimmī
Dietary Rules
Dihlawī, Shāh Walī Allāh
Dīn Wa-dunyā
Diplomacy
Diplomatic Immunity
Diplomatic Missions
Divination
Divorce
Dīwān
Djibouti
Drama
Dress
Druze
Dūrī, ʿabd Al-ʿazīz Al-
Durrānī Dynasty
Economic Development
Economics
Education
Egypt
Electronic Media
Elijah Muhammad
Embassies
England
Ennadha
Enver Pasha
Epigraphy
Erbakan, Necmettin
Ersoy, Mehmed Âkif
Eschatology
Ethics
Ethiopia
Ethnicity
Exegesis

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F–J

Faḍlallāh, Muḥammad ḥusayn
Faith
Fakhreddin, Rizaeddin
Falsafah
Family
Family Law
Family Planning
Faqīh
Farḍ Al-ʿayn
Farḍ Al-kifāyah
Fārūqī, Ismāʿīl Rājī Al-
Fāsī, Muḥammad ʿAllāl Al-
Fasting
Fathy, Hassan
Fāṭimid Dynasty
Fatwā
Fédération Nationale Des Musulmans De France
Federation of Islamic Associations
Feminism
Fez
Fidā'īyān-i Islām
Film
Fis
Fitnah
Foundation For the Disinherited
France
Front Islamique Du Salut
Fulānī Dynasty
Fundamentalism
Funerary Rites
Funj Sultanate
Futūwah
Fyzee, Asaf Ali Asghar
Gambia
Games and Sport
Gardens and Landscaping
Gasprinskii, Ismail Bey
Gaza
Geomancy
Germany
Ghana
Ghannūshī, Rāshid Al-
Ghaybah
Ghazālī, Abū ḥāmid Al-
Ghazālī, Muḥammad Al-
Ghazālī, Zaynab Al-
Ghazw
Girūgān
Gökalp, Mehmet Ziya
Government
Great Britain
Groupement Islamique En France
Guardianship
Guilds
Guinea
Gulf States
Habous
Ḥaḍārah
Ḥadīth
Hagiography
Ḥā'irī Yazdī, ʿAbd Al-karīm
Ḥajj
Ḥakīm, Muḥsin Al-
Ḥākimīyah
Ḥalāl
Ḥamās
Hamdard Foundation
Hamka
Ḥanafī
Ḥanafī, ḥasan
Ḥanbalī
Ḥaqq
Ḥarakāt Al-tawḥīd Al-islāmī
Ḥarām
Ḥarb
Hatt-i Hümayun of Gülhane
Health Care
Hekmatyar, Gulbuddin
Ḥijāb
Hijrah
Ḥilf
Ḥillī, ʿAllāmah ibn Al-muṭahhar al-
Ḥisbah
Historiography
Ḥizb
Ḥizb Al-daʿwah Al-islāmīyah
Ḥizb Al-nahḍah
Ḥizb Al-taḥrīr Al-islāmī
Ḥizb-i Islāmī Afghānistān
Ḥizbullāh
Holidays
Honor
Hostages
Houses
Ḥudūd
Ḥujjatīyah
Ḥukūmah
Human Rights
Ḥurrīyah
Ḥusayn, ṭāhā
Ḥusaynī, Al-ḥājj Amīn Al-
Ḥusayn Ibn ʿAlī
Ḥusayn Ibn ʿAlī
Ḥusaynid Dynasty
Ḥusaynīyah
Ḥuṣrī, Abū Khaldūn Sāṭiʿ Al-
Ibāḍī Dynasty
Ibāḍīyah
Iblīs
Ibn ʿAbd Al-wahhāb, Muḥammad
Ibn Al-ʿArabī, Muḥyī Al-dīn
Ibn Bādīs, ʿAbd Al-ḥamīd
Ibn Idrīs, Aḥmad
Ibn Khaldūn, ʿAbd Al-raḥmān
Ibn Taymīyah, Taqī Al-dīn Aḥmad
Ibrahim, Anwar
Iconography
ʿId Al-aḍḥā
ʿId Al-fiṭr
Identity
Ideology and Islam
Idrīsid Dynasty
Idrīsīyah
Iifso
Iʿjāz
Ijmāʿ
Ijtihād
ʿIlm
Imam
Imāmah
Imāmī Shiism
Imāmzādah
īmān
India
Indian Ocean Societies
Indonesia
Indonesian Literature
Inheritance
Innovation
Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs
Intercession
Interest
Interfaith Dialogue
International Islamic Federation of Student Organizations
International Islamic University At Islamabad
International Islamic University At Kuala Lumpur
International Law
International Relations and Diplomacy
IntiẒar
Iqbal, Muhammad
Iran
Iranian Revolution of 1979
Iraq
Ishaki, Ayaz
Iṣlāḥ
Islam
Islamic Movements
Islamic Calendar
Islamic Call Society
Islamic Chamber of Commerce
Islamic Cultural Centers
Islamic Development Bank
Islamic Foundation
Islamic Renaissance Party
Islamic Republican Party
Islamic Salvation Front
Islamic Society of North America
Islamic State
Islamic Studies
Islamic Tendency Movement
Ismāʿīlīyah
Israel
Istiqlāl
Ithnā ʿasharīyah
Ittihad-i Muhammadi Cemiyeti
Ittihad Ve Terakki Cemiyeti
Jabhat Al-inqādh Al-islāmī
Jadīdism
Jaʿfarī
Jāhilīyah
Jamāʿat Al-islāmīyah, Al-
Jamāʿat-i Islāmī
Jamāʿat Tablīgh
Jāmiʿah Al-sayfīyah, Al-
Jamʿīyat Al-shubbān Al-muslimīn
Jamʿīyatul ʿulamā'-i Hind
Jamʿīyatul ʿulamā'-i Islām
Jamʿīyatul ʿulamā'-i Pākistān
Janissaries
Jaysh
Jerusalem
Jihād
Jihād Organizations
Jinnah, Mohammad Ali
Jizyah
Jordan
Judaism and Islam
Judge
Jumblatt, Kamal
Jumhūrīyah
Justice

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K–O

Kabylia
Kalām
Kāmil, Muṣṭafā
Karbala
Kāshāni, Abol-qāsem
Kashmir
Kasravi, Aḥmad
Kawākibī, ʿabd Al-raḥmān Al-
Kazakhstan
Kazan Khanate
Kemal, Mustafa
Kemal, Mehmet Namik
Kemalism
Khalafallāh, Muḥammad Aḥmad
Khālid, Khālid Muḥammad
Khalwatīyah
Khan
Khānqāh
Kharāj
Khārijites
Khatmīyah
Khaṭṭābī, Muḥammad Ibn ʿabd Al-karīm Al-
Khawārij
Khedive
Khilāfah
Khilāfat Movement
Khiva Khanate
Kho'i, Abol-qāsem
Khojas
Khomeini, Ruhollah Al-musavi
Khoqand Khanate
Khū'ī, Abū Al-qāsim
Khums
Khuṭbah
King Faisal Foundation
Kirghizia
Kisakürek, Necip Fazil
Kishk, ʿabd Al-ḥamīd
Komiteh
Kufr
Kuntī, Al-
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan
Labor Party of Egypt
Land Tenure
Law
Lebanon
Liberation Movement of Iran
Libraries
Libya
Life Cycle
Loya Jirga
Madanī, ʿAbbāsī
Madhhab
Madīnah Al-fāḍilah, Al-
Madrasah
Magazines
Magic and Sorcery
Mahdi
Mahdī, Al-ṣādiq Al-
Mahdīyah
Maḥkamah
Maḥmūd, Muṣṭafā
Mai Tatsine
Majallah
Majlis
Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir Al-
Makkah
Malay and Indonesian Literature
Malaysia
Malcolm X
Mali
Malik
Mālikī
Malkom Khān
Mamlūk State
Marāghī, Muṣṭafā Al-
Marjaʿ Al-Taqlīd
Market
Marriage and Divorce
Martyrdom
Maryam Jameelah
Mashhad
Mashrūṭah
Mashwarah
Masjumi
Maṣlaḥah
Mathematics
Mauritania
Mawdūdī, Sayyid Abū Al-aʿlā
Mawlā
Mawlawīyah
Mawlāy
Mawlid
Mecca
Mecelle
Medicine
Medina
Meditation
Mernissi, Fatima
Messali Al-ḥajj
Messianism
Metalwork
Mevlevî
Military Forces
Millet
Millî Nizam Partisi
Millî Selamet Partisi
Minorities
Miracles
Miʿrāj
Modernism
Modernization and Development
Modesty
Monarchy
Monotheism
Morocco
Moro National Liberation Front
Mosque
Movies
Muftī
Mughal Empire
Muḥammad
Muḥammad ʿAbduh
Muḥammad ʿAlī Dynasty
Muhammadiyah
Muḥarram
Muḥtasib
Mujahid
Mujāhidīn
Mujtahid
Mukhtār, ʿUmar Al-
Mulk
Mullabashi
Mullah
Murīdīyah
Mūsā, Nabawīyah
Music
Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim-Christian Dialogue
Muslim-Jewish Dialogue
Muslim League
Muslim World League
Mustaḍʿafūn
Muṣṭafā, Shukrī
Mutʿah
Muṭahharī, MurtaẒā
Myanmar
Nahḍah
Nahdatul Ulama
Nā'īnī, Muḥammad Ḥusayn
Najaf
Names and Naming
Naqshbandīyah
Nāṣif, Malak ḥifnī
Nasr, Seyyed Hossein
Nasser, Gamal Abdel
Nasserism
Nation
National Islamic Front
National Salvation Party
Nation of Islam
Natsir, Mohammad
Natural Sciences
Nawrūz
Newspapers and Magazines
New Year
New Zealand
Niger
Nigeria
Niʿmatullāhīyah
Niqābah.
Nubūwah.
Numerology
Nurcholish Madjid
Nurculuk
Nūrī, FaẒlullāh
Nursî, Said
Nuṣayrīyah
Oman
Organization of the Islamic Conference
Organization of the Islamic Jihād
Orientalism
Ottoman Empire
Özal, Turgut

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P–S

Pahlavi, Muhammad Reza Shah
Pahlavi, Reza Shah
Painting
Pakistan
Palestinian Territories/West Bank/Gaza
Palestinian Territories/West Bank/Gaza Liberation Organization
Pamphlets and Tracts
Pan-arabism
Pan-islam
Pan-Turkism
Paradise
Partai Islam Se-malaysia
Partai Persatuan Pembangunan
Patani United Liberation Organization
Penal Law
People of the Book
Perical Literature
Perkim
Persian Literature
Pesantren
Philippines
Philosophy
Pilgrimage
Pillars of Islam
Pious Foundations
Pir
Poetry
Political Parties
Polygyny
Popular Religion
Population Growth
Pottery and Ceramics
Prayer
Property
Prophethood
Puberty Rites
Public Law
Purdah
Purification
Qadhdhāfī, Muʿammar Al-
Qāḍī
Qādirīyah
Qājār Dynasty
Qānūn
Qaramanli Dynasty
Qatar
Qiṣāṣ
Qom
Qur'ān
Qur'ānic Recitation
Quṭb, Sayyid
Rābiṭah, Al-
Radio and Television
Rahman, Fazlur
Ramaḍān
Rashīd Riḍā, Muḥammad
Rassemblement Constitutionel Democratique
RawẒah Khvānī
Refâh Partisi
Reference Books
Reform
Refugees
Regional Islamic Daʿwah Council of Southeast Asia and the Pacific
Relics
Repentance
Republic
Republican Brothers
Resurrection
Revelation
Revival and Renewal
Revolution
Ribā
Riḍā, Rashīd
Rifāʿīyah
Rightly Guided Caliphs
Risale-i Nur
Rites of Passage
Rushdie Affair
Sacrifice
Saʿdāwī, Nawāl Al-
Ṣadr
Ṣadr, Muḥammad Bāqir Al-
Ṣadr, Mūsā Al-
Ṣafavid Dynasty
Ṣaḥwah
Said Halim Pasha, Mehmed
Sainthood
Salafīyah
Ṣalāt
Sama'
Sanhūrī, ʿabd Al-razzāq Al-
Sanūsīyah
Sarekat Islam
Satan
Saʿūd, ʿAbd Al-ʿazīz Ibn ʿabd Al-raḥmān āl
Saʿūd, Fayṣal Ibn ʿAbd Al-ʿazīz āl
Saudi Arabia
Ṣawm
Sayyid
Science
Seclusion
Secularism
Seljuk Dynasty
Senegal
Seveners
Sexuality
Shabazz, El-Hajj Malik El-
Shadhilīyah
Shadow of God
Shāfiʿī
Shafīq, Durrīyah
Shah
Shahādah
Shaltūt, Maḥmūd
Shame
Shaʿrāwī, Hudā
Sharīʿah
Sharīʿatī, ʿalī
Sharīf
Shaṭṭārīyah
Shaykh
Shaykh Al-islām
Shaykhīyah
Shīʿī Islam
Shīrāzī, Sayyid ʿalī Muḥammad Al-
Shirk
Shrine
Shūrā
Sibāʿī, Muṣṭafā Al-
Sin
Şinasi, Ibrahim
Singapore
Sipāh-i Pasdarān-i Inqilāb-i Islāmī
Sirhindī, Aḥmad
Slavery
Socialism and Islam
Social Sciences
Sokoto Caliphate
Somalia
South Africa
Spanish Umayyads
Sport
State
Stereotypes in Mass Media
Suavi, Ali
Sudan
Sufism
Sufism and Politics
Suicide
Sultan
Sunnah
Sunnī Islam
Sūq
Suriname
Surrogate Motherhood
Syncretism
Syndicates
Syria

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T–Z

Ṭabāṭabā'ī, Muḥammad ḥusayn
Ṭabāṭabā'ī Al-ḥakīm, Muḥsin Ibn Mahdī
Tablīgh
Tablīghī Jamāʿat
Tafsīr
Ṭāghūt
Tajdīd
Tajikistan
Takfīr
Takfīr Wa Al-hijrah, Jamāʿat Al-
Ṭāleqāni, Maḥmud
Tanzania
Tanzimat
Taqīyah
Taqlīd
Taqwā
Ṭarīqah
Tawḥīd
Taxation
Taʿzīr
Taʿziyah
Technology and Applied Sciences
Tekke
Television
Temporary Marriage
Terrorism
Textiles
Thailand
Theology
Ṭibb
Tijānī, Aḥmad Al-
Tijānīyah
Trade
Traditions
Tribe
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turābī, ḥasan Al-
Turkey
Turkish Literature
Turkmenistan
Twelvers
Uganda
ʿUlamā'
ʿUmar Al-mukhtār
ʿUmar Tal
Umayyad Caliphate
Ummah
Ummah-anṣār
Union Des Organisations Islamiques De France
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United Kingdom Islamic Mission
United Malays National Organization
United States of America
Universities
Urban Planning
Urdu Literature
ʿUrf
ʿUshr
Uṣūl Al-fiqh
Uṣūlīyah
Uzbekistan
Veil
Vicegerent
Vilāyat-i Faqīh
Vizier
Wahhābīyah
Wakālah Al-ʿāmmah, Al-
Wakālah Al-khāṣṣah, Al-
Walāyah
Walī
Walī Allāh, Shāh
Waqf
War
Waṭan
WaẒīfah
Wazīr
West Bank and Gaza
Wilāyah
Wilāyat Al-faqīh
Women and Islam
Women and Social Reform
Women's Action Forum
Women's Movements
World Assembly of Muslim Youth
World Muslim Congress
Yan Tatsine
Yemen
Young Ottomans
Young Turks
Youth Movements
Zāhirī
Zaʿīm
Zakāt
Zand Dynasty
Zāwiyah
Zaydīyah
Zaytūnah
Zikr
Ziyārah
Zulm
Zūrkhānah

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