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The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Edited by Jonathan M. Bloom and Sheila S. Blair

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture is the most comprehensive reference work in this complex and diverse area of art history. Built on the acclaimed scholarship of the Grove Dictionary of Art, this work offers up-to-date entries on Islamic art and architecture ranging from the Middle East to Central and South Asia, Africa, and Europe and spans over a thousand years of history. Recent changes in Islamic art in areas such as Afghanistan, Iran, and Iraq are elucidated here by distinguished scholars. Entries provide in-depth art historical and cultural information about dynasties, art forms, artists, architecture, rulers, monuments, archaeological sites, and stylistic developments. With the fundamental understanding that Islamic art is not limited to a particular region, or to a defined period of time, the Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture offers pathways into Islamic culture through its art.

Jonathan M. Bloom and Sheila S. Blair share the Norma Jean Calderwood University Professorship of Islamic and Asian Art at Boston College and the Hamad bin Khalifa Endowed Chair of Islamic Art at Virginia Commonwealth University. Drs. Bloom and Blair study all aspects of Islamic art from the seventh century to modern times. Bloom is particularly interested in the arts of the medieval Mediterranean region as well as the history of paper; Blair is particularly interested in the arts of Iran and Central Asia, the Mongols, and the history of the Islamic book. In addition to their hundreds of individual articles, reviews, and monographs, they have written or edited seven books jointly. They also served as consultants to the PBS documentary Islam: Empire of Faith, and are convenors of the Hamad bin Khalifa Biennial Symposium on Islamic Art. Bloom and Blair received their Ph.D.s in Middle Eastern Studies and Fine Arts from Harvard University.

Published by Oxford University Press, 2009.


A–B | C–E | F–J | K–O | P–S | T–Z | Maps

A–B

Abarquh
Abarshahr
Abbasid
'Abd al-Hayy
Abd al-Jalil Celebi
Abd al-Samad
Abdallah Khan
Abdallah Sayrafi
Abdulcelil Celebi
Abedin, Zainul
Abid
Abu
Abu Ali Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Muqla
Abu Dhabi
Abu Tahir
Abu Zayd
Abu'l-Hasan
Abu'l-Qasim
Ackerman, Phyllis
Acudogu, Ratip Asir
'Adil Shahi
Adnan, Etel
Adrianople
Aesthetics.
Afghanistan
Afrasiab
Africa
Afzal
Aga Khan Award for Architecture.
Agha, Zubeida
Aghlabid
Agra
Ahmad
Ahmad al-Suhrawardi
Ahmad Jalayir
Ahmad Karahisari
Ahmad Musa
Ahmed Dalgiç
Ahmed Nakşi
Ahmedabad
Ahmet Ali
Aiwan
Ajman
Ajmer
Akhlaq, Zahoor ul-
Akkoyunlu
Ala' al-Din 'Ali ibn 'Abd al-Karim
Alamut
'Alawi
Albania
Album
Aleppo
Alexandria
Alexandria Eschate
Algeria, Democratic and Popular Republic of
Algiers
'Ali
'Ali, Shakir
Ali Acemi
Ali Ashraf
Ali ibn Hilal al-Bawwab
Ali Muhammad Isfahani
Ali, Wijdan
Aligarh
Aliquli Jabbadar
Alishir Nava'i
Allahabad
Almohad
Almoravid
Amasya
Amida
Amidi, Hamid al-
Amir Ruhallah
Amman
Anant
Anjar
Ankara
Aqa Buzurg
Aqa Mirak
Aqa Riza (i)
Aqqoyunlu
Arabesque
Arabshahi, Massoud
Arches in Islamic Architecture
Architect
Architecture
Ardabil
Ardalan, Nader
Ardistan
Armajani, Siah
Armenia
Arms & Armor
Arnold, Sir Thomas (Walker)
Arseven, Celal Esad
Art and Freedom
Artesonado
Artists, status of
Artuqid
Ashgabat
Ashraf
Association Ottoman Painters
Astrolabe
Aswan
Athens
Atil, Esin
Atrabulus
Awliya Ata
Ayn al-Jarr
Aytac, Hamid
Ayvan
Ayyubid
Azerbaijan
Azmi, Musa
Badr al-Din Lu'lu'
Badran, Rasim
Baer, Eva
Baghdad
Bahmani [Bahmanī; Bahmanid].
Bahrain, State of
Bakhchisaray
Baku
Balasaghun
Balchand
Balconies in Islamic Architecture
Balian
Balis
Balkh
Balyan I. Krikor Amira
Bam
Banbhore
Bangladesh
Banknotes
Banu Nas
Banvari
Baqir
Bara, Ali Hadi
Barda
Bardsir
Bari
Barid Shahi
Barlow, Sir (James) Alan (Noel)
Basawan
Basra
Bastam
Bath
Bayani, Mehdi
Bayt al-Din
Beatty, Sir (Alfred) Chester
Beh-Ardashir
Behzad
Belkahia, Farid
Bell, Gertrude Margaret Lowthian
Benaki, Anthony
Berber
Berchem, Max van
Berk, Nurullah
Berkel, Sabri
Bestam
Bevelled style
Beylik
Bhagwan
Bhanwari
Bhopal
Bichitr
Bidar
Bihzad
Bijapur
Bilkahiyya, Farid
Binket
Bishan Das
Bishkek
Bistam
Blue-and-white ceramic
Book, arts of
Bookbinding
Bosnia & Herzegovina
Bosra
Boullata, Kamal
Brass
Brick
Bridges in Islamic Architecture
Bronze
Bteddin
Bukhara
Buksh, Allah
Bulgaria
Bundzhikat
Burana
Burlima
Bursa
Buyid
Byron, Robert
Byzantium

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C–E

Cairo
Çalli, Ibrahim
Calligraphy
Cambay
Cansever, Turgut
Capitals in Islamic Architecture
Caravanserai
Caricature
Carpets & flatweaves
Carrhae
Ceilings in Islamic Architecture
Çelebi, Ali (Avni)
Cemetery
Cenotaph
Central Asia
Ceramics
Chach
Chad Republic
Chadirji, Rifat (Kamil)
Cherkaoui, Ahmed
Chess
China, People's Republic of
Christian art in the Islamic world.
Chufutkale
Chughtai, Abdur Rahman
Chzheshi
Coffering
Coins
Collectors & collecting
Colophon
Color
Columns in Islamic Architecture
Connoisseurship
Constantinople
Córdoba
Coste, Pascal (-Xavier)
Crac de Montreal
Creswell, K(eppel) A(rchibald) C(ameron)
Crusader art
Dacca
Dalgic, Ahmet Aga
Damascus
Damghan
Darvish Muhammad
Daswanth
Daulat
Daulatabad
Davud Ağa
Dawlat al-Bahrayn
Dawlat Qatar
Delhi
Demography
Demotte, Georges (J.)
Derman, Mustafa Uğur
Devagiri
Dhaka
Dhannu
Dharm Das
Dhillika
Diba, Kamran (Tabatabai)
Diez, Ernst
Dihli
Dilmun
Dimand, Maurice S(ven)
Dimashq
Divriği
Diyarbakir
Dome
Door
Doshi, Balkrishna V.
Drawing.
Dress
Dubai
Durra, Muhanna
Dushanbe
Dust Muhammad
Dzhambul
Early Photography and the Near East
Edessa
Edhem, Osman Hamdi
Edirne
Efendi, Necmeddin
Egypt
Eikonion
Eldem, Halil Edhem
Eldem, Sedad Hakki
Elizavetpol
Enamel
Ephesos
Epikman, Refik
Epiphania
Erdmann, Kurt
Ermes, Ali Omar
Erotic art
Erzurum
Esad Yesari
Esfahan
Esir
Eski Krym
Ethnography
Ettinghausen, Richard
Eumorfopoulos, George
Exhibitions
Eyuboglu, Bedri Rahmu
Eyvan

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F–J

Farès, Bishr
Farghana
Farrukh Beg
Farrukh Chela
Fas
Fatehpur Sikri
Fathy, Hassan
Fatimid
Fattah, Ismail
Fehérvári, Géza
Ferghana
Fez
Filālī
Filibe
Flags
Forgeries
Fountain
Frunze
Fujayra
Fulani
Furniture
Gabae
Gabriel, Albert(-Louis)
Gandja
Garden
Gaur
Gem engraving
Geography and trade
Gezer, Hüseyin
Ghaffari
Gharnāta
Ghaybi
Ghazna
Ghaznavid
Ghulam
Ghurid
Gilim
Glass
Glass painting
Godard, André
Godman, Frederick Ducane
Goetz, Hermann
Golconda
Gombad-e Qabus
Govardhan
Grabar, Oleg
Granada
Gray, Basil
Greece, Hellenic Democracy of
Grube, Ernst J.
Guidebook
Guinea, Republic of
Gulbarga
Gulgee
Gunbad-i Qabus
Güran, Nazmi Ziya
Gurganj
Hadrumetum
Hafiz Osman
Hafsid
Halab
Halāward
Hama
Hamdi Bey
Hamdullah, Şeyh
Haranee
Harari, Ralph
Harat
Haribans
Harness and trappings
Harran
Hasan, Zaki Muhammad
Hasan [Pasha], Nakkaş
Hashem Muhammad al-Baghdadi
Hashim
Hassan, Faik
Hausa
Haydar
Haydar Ra'is
Haydarābād
Hayreddin
Heeramaneck, Nasli M.
Heraldry
Herat
Herzegovina
Herzfeld, Ernst
Hillenbrand, Robert
Hisn al-Akrād
Hispalis
Hissar Fortress
Historiography
History
Houshiary, Shirazeh
Housing
Hulbuk
Hungary, Republic of
Husain, Maqbool Fida
Husayn 'Alī
Hyderabad
Ibn al-Bawwab
Ibn al-Zayn
Ibn Muqla
Ibrahim Pasha [Nevşehirli Ibrahim Pasha]
Iconium
Iconoclasm
Iconography
'Idgah
Idrisid
Ilkhanid
Illumination
Illustration
'Imad al-Hasani
Imami
India, Republic of
Indonesia, Republic of
Ink
Iran, Islamic Republic of
Iraq, Republic of
Isahāni
Isfahan
Isfahani
Ishbīliya
Islam
Islamabad
Islamic art
Islamic Art Bibliography
Isma'il Jalayir
Israel
Issiakhem, M'hamed
Istanbul
Ivan
Ivanov, Anatoly Alekseevich
Ivory
Iwan
İyem, Nuri
Iznik
İzzet Efendi
Ja'far
Jade
Jagan
Jalayirid
Jamal al-Din ibn
Jaunpur
Jerusalem
Jewelry
Jewish art in the Islamic world
Johnson, Richard
Jordan, Hashemite Kingdom of
Journals of Islamic Art
Junayd
Jurjāniyya

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K–O

Kabul
Kadiasker Mustafa İzzet
Kadjar
Kairouan
Kaisareia
Kal'at Bani Hammad
Kala-i Mug
Kamal al-Din Bihzad
Kanha
Kanka
Kano
Kara Memi
Karachi
Karakoyunlu
Kars
Kashan
Kashani
Kashar
Kasim Ağa
Kasr el-Heir
Kayseri
Kazakhstan
Kazvin
Kemalettin
Kemkaran
Kenya
Kerman
Kesu Das
Kevorkian, Hagop
Khalji
Khambhat
Khanaqah
Kharadzhet
Kharaneh
Khelaverd
Khem Karan
Khirbat al-Mafjar
Khiva
Khodzhent
Khokand
Khul'buk
Khwāja 'Abd al-Hayy
Khwaja 'Ali
Kilim
Kiosk
Kirman
Kirovabad
Koca Sinan
Kocamemi, (Ahmet) Zeki
Koil
Kokand
Konstantiniye
Konya
Koran
Korçari, Petro
Krak de Monreal
Krak des Chevaliers
Krasnaya Rechka
Kuba
Kuban, Doğan
Kubba
Kufa
Kühnel, (Wilhelm) Ernst (Paul)
Külliye
Kum
Kunya-Urgench
Kurbanshaid
Kuseir
Kuva
Kuwait
Kuz-Balyk
Kyrgyzstan
Lacquer
Lagman
Lahore
Lakhnautī
Lal
Landscape.
Lane, (Edward) Arthur
Lari, Yasmeen
Lashkari Bazar
Lebanon, Republic of
Leninabad
Levni
Library
Libya
Liwan
Lodi
Lutf 'Ali Khan
Macedonia
Madhu
Madinat al-Zahra
Madrasa
Mahan
Mahdia
Mahesh
Mahmud Muzahhib
Makiya, Mohamed (Saleh)
Malacca
Málaga
Malaysia
Mali, Republic of
Mamluk
Mandu
Manohar
Mansur
Maqsura
Maragha
Marçais, Georges
Mardakan
Marinid
Market, covered
Marrakesh
Marshak, Boris Ilich
Marshak, Boris Ilich
Martin, Fredrik (Robert)
Marv [Marw; Mary]
Mashhad
Masjid
Massoudy, Hassan
Masyaf
Mauritania
Mawsl
Mayer, Leo Ary [Arie, Aryeh]
Mecca
Medina
Medina Azzahra
Mehmed Ağa
Mehmed Esad Yesari
Mehmed of Bosnia
Mehmed Rasim
Mehmed Sami
Mehmed Şefik
Mehmed Şevki
Mehmed-i Siyah
Meinecke, Michael
Meknès
Melaka
Melehi, Mohammed
Merinid
Merv
Metalwork
Mihr 'Ali
Mihrab
Military architecture and fortification
Minaret
Minbar
Mir 'Ali Husayni Haravi
Mir 'Ali Shir
Mir 'Ali Tabrizi
Mir 'Imad
Mir Afzal
Mir Muhammad Yusuf
Mir Musavvir
Mir Sayyid 'Ali
Mir Sayyid Ahmad
Mir Zayn al-'Abidin Tabrizi
Mirador
Mirak
Mirror
Mirza 'Ali
Mirza Baba
Mirzoyam
Miskin
Mocarabes
Mogul
Monneret de Villard, Ugo
Mons Regalus
Montréal
Moorish
Morocco, Kingdom of
Moshiri, Farhad
Mosque
Mosul
Moudarres, Fateh
Mounting
Mozarabic
Mshatta
Mu'in
Mu'izzi
Mualla, Fikret
Mudéjar
Mughal
Muhammad 'Ali (i)
Muhammad 'Ali (ii)
Muhammad Baqir (i)
Muhammad Baqir (ii)
Muhammad Hasan Afshar
Muhammad Hasan Khan
Muhammad ibn al-Zayn
Muhammad Ja'far
Muhammad Qasim
Muhammad Sadiq
Muhammad Shafi'
Muhammad Sharif
Muhammad Shirin
Muhammad Yusuf
Muhammad Zaman
Muhammadi
Mukhtar, Mahmud
Mukund
Mulla Sadiq
Multan
Muqarnas
Murabitun, al-
Murdoch Smith, Sir Robert
Müridoğlu, Zühtü
Musafa 'Izzat
Musafa Raqim
Musalla
Muscat and Oman
Museums
Mushatta
Muslim
Mustafa Ağa
Mustafa İzzet
Mustafa Raqim
Muwahhidun, al-
Muzaffar 'Ali
Muzaffarid
Myers, George Hewitt
Na'in
Naghi
Nakhchyvan
Nakkaş Osman
Nanha
Naqsh, Jamil
Narrative art
Nasrid
Nasuh Matrakçi
Natanz
Nayin
Nayshābūr
Neshat, Shirin
Nevşehirli Ibrahim Pasha
Nicaea
Niebuhr, Carsten
Nigari
Niger
Nigeria
Nikaia
Nishapur
Nizam Shahi
Nubia
Oil painting
Okyay, Necmeddin
Oman, Sultanate of
Onat, Emin
Orfa
Orientalism
Ornament and pattern
Ortukid
Osman
Osman Hamdi
Osmanli
Otrar
Otto-Dorn, Katharina
Ottoman
Özyazici, (Mustafa) Halim

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P–S

Pakistan
Palace
Palermo
Palestine
Panjikent
Paper
Papercuts
Partav
Parvez, Ahmed
Patronage
Pattern
Payag
Pendzhikent
Periodicals
Perspective in Islamic Art
Peul
Philadelphia
Philippopolis
Pinder-Wilson, Ralph
Pir Yahya ibn Nas al-Sufi al-Jamal
Pishpek
Pishtaq
Plasterwork
Plovdiv
Poltoratsk
Pope, Arthur Upham
Portals in Islamic Architecture
Portraits in Islamic Art
Postage stamps
Pozzi, Jean (Félix Anne)
Prayaga
Printing
Prusa
Qahira, al-
Qairouan
Qajar
Qal'at Bani Hammad
Qaraqoyunlu
Qas al-Mshatta
Qashani
Qasim 'Ali
Qasr al-Hayr East
Qasr al-Hayr West
Qasr Kharana
Qatar, State of
Qavam al-Din Shirazi
Qayrawan, al-
Qazvin
Quba (i)
Quba (ii)
Quds, al-
Qum
Qusantiniya
Qusayr 'Amra
Quseir
Qutb Shahi
Ra's al-Khayma
Rabat
Rabbath Ammon
Ramdas
Raqqa
Rashid al-Din
Rasulid
Rayy
Raza, Sayed Haider
Regalia
Reis Haydar
Reitlinger, Gerald
Resafa
Ribat-i Malik
Ribat-i Sharaf
Rice, David Storm
Riyadh
Riza
Robat Sharaf
Robinson, Basil W
Rock crystal
Rogers, J. M(ichael)
Ruhā', al-
Rupbas
Rusafa
Sa'di
Sadequain
Sadiq
Sadiqi
Safavid
Şahkulu
Said, Issam (Sabah) el-
Said, Shaker Hassan al-
Sajjad, Shahid
Salahi, Ibrahim el-
Salim, Jawad
Saljuq
Samanid
Samarkand
Samarra
Sami
San'a
Saqqakhana
Sarajevo
Sarkhej
Sarre, Friedrich
Sarvistan
Sasaram
Saudi
Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of
Sauvaget, Jean
Sawākin
Sayyed
Sayyid
Sayyid Aqa Jalal al-Din Mirak al-Hasani al- Isfahani
Sayyid Haydar ibn ?Asl al-Din
Sayyid Mirza
Saz
Seals
Sedrata
Şeker Ahmet Pasha
Selçuk
Seljuk
Semnan
Senegal, Republic of
Sepahan
Serbia
Sergiopolis
Seville
Sevruguin, Antoin
Seyyit, Süleyman
Shadow-puppets
Shafi' 'Abbasi
Shahquli
Shahr-i Rayy
Shahr-i Sabz
Sham, al-
Sharjah
Shāsh
Shaubak
Shavgar
Shawa, Leila (Rashad)
Shaybanid
Shaykh 'Abbasi
Shaykh Hamdullah ibn Musafā Dede
Shaykh Muhammad
Shaykhi
Shaykhzada
Shemza, Anwar Jalal
Shepherd, Dorothy
Shi
Shibanid
Shiraz
Shrine
Shufu
Shusha
Sikandra
Silk Route
Simnan
Sinan
Siraf
Sivas
Siyah Qalam
Siyavush
Smith, Robert Murdoch
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha
Solkhat-Krym
Soltaniye
Somalia
Sourdel-Thomine, Janine
Sousse
Spolia and Islamic Buildings
Squinches in Islamic Architecture
Srinagar
Staircase
Stalinabad
Stamps
Staryy Krym
Stchoukine, Ivan (Sergeyevich)
Stele
Stucco and plasterwork
Suakin
Subject matter
Sudan, Democratic Republic of the
Sulayhid
Sultan 'Ali Mashhadi
Sultaniyya
Sultan-Muhammad
Sur
Sūsa
Swahili
Syria

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T–Z

Tabriz
Tāherī
Tajikistan
Talas
Tanavoli, Parviz
Tanzania, United Republic of
Tara
Tarabulus
Taraz
Tashkent
Tehran
Tent
Termez
Terrasse, Henri
Textiles
Thattha
Throne
Tihrān
Tiles
Tilimsān
Tilmun
Timbuktu
Timurid
Tiraz
Tirmidh
Tlemcen
Tollu, Cemal
Tomb
Tombouctou
Tombstone
Toptani, Murad (Said)
Tremecén
Tripoli (i)
Tripoli (ii) [?arābulus]
Tuareg
Tughluq
Tughra
Tulsi Kalan
Tulunid
Tunis
Tunisia, Republic of
Turkestan
Turkey, Republic of
Turkish Fine Arts Society
Turkmenistan
Tylos
Ukhaydir
Umayyad
Umm al-Qaywayn
United Arab Emirates
Ura Tyube
Urban development
Urfa
Urgench
Üsküdari
Ustad Mansur
Ustad Muhammad Siyah Qalam
Uzbekistan, Republic of
Uzgend
Vagkat
Varamin
Vedat
Veli Can
Veneto-Saracenic
Vernacular architecture
Vever, Henri
Vicitra
Vijayapura
Visudasa
Wakil, Abdel Wahed el-
Waramin
Wiet, Gaston
Wijdan Ali
Wilkinson, Charles
Wind catcher
Windows in Islamic Architecture
Woodwork
Yahya al-Sufi
Yangi
Yaqut al-Musta'simi
Yasi
Yazd
Yemen Republic of
Yerushalayim
Yesari, Esad
Zabid
Zaim, Turgut
Zakariya, Mohamed
Zand
Zangid
Zanzibar.
Zavara
Zaydi
Zayn al-'Abidin
Zeid, Fahrelnissa
Zenderoudi, Hussein
Zhambyl
Zirid

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