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Timelines

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Displaying 30 Moments from 630 - 699

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  Islamic World NonIslamic World        
        Year Moment  
  Islamic World     630 Muhammad occupies Mecca  
  Islamic World     632 Death of Muhammad  
  Islamic World     632 Abu Bakr becomes first caliph   Learn more
  Islamic World     632 - 661 Reign of the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs—normative period for Sunni Islam   Learn more
  Islamic World     633 Death of Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad, wife of ʿAli, and mother of Hasan and Husayn   Learn more
  Islamic World     634 Death of first caliph Abu Bakr  
  Islamic World     634 ʿUmar ibn al-Khattab becomes second caliph, initiating designation of waqf via written and witnessed documentation and relegation of women to separate room of mosque for prayers with their own imam, rather than in same room but behind men as had occur   Learn more
  Islamic World     637 Battle of Qadisiyah, Muslim Arabs defeat the Persians   Learn more
  Islamic World     638 Muslims occupy Jerusalem   Learn more
  Islamic World     638 Construction of al-Aqsa Mosque complex begins   Learn more
  Islamic World     639 Expansion of Islam into Central Asia and Caucasus begins  
  Islamic World     644 Caliph ʿUmar ibn al-Khattab assassinated; ʿUthman ibn ʿAffan becomes third caliph   Learn more
  Islamic World     644 Qurʾan is collected and put in final format during reign of ʿUthman, within 20 years of Muhammad’s death   Learn more
  Islamic World     652 Death of Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, companion of Muhammad, one of earliest converts to Islam, symbol of loyalty to Muhammad’s family, and focus of modern ideological debates criticizing the hoarding of wealth and the caliphate of ʿUthman   Learn more
  Islamic World     656 Caliph ʿUthman ibn ʿAffan assassinated; ʿAli ibn Abi Talib becomes fourth caliph   Learn more
  Islamic World     656 - 661 First Muslim civil war over succession, leading to Sunni–Shiʿi split   Learn more
  Islamic World     656 Battle of the Camel with ʿAishah leading Muslim forces against Caliph ʿAli ibn Abi Talib   Learn more
  Islamic World     657 Battle of Siffin, between forces of Muʿawiyah of the ʿUmayyad family and the army of ʿAli; Kharijites secede from ʿAli’s camp in protest over negotiations   Learn more
  Islamic World     661 Caliph ʿAli ibn Abi Talib assassinated   Learn more
  Islamic World     661 Muʿawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan founds ʿUmayyad dynasty  
  Islamic World     661 - 750 ʿUmayyad Caliphate—Arab military aristocracy   Learn more
  Islamic World     670 Muslim conquest of northwest Africa  
  Islamic World     670 Death of Muhammad’s grandson, Hasan   Learn more
    NonIslamic World   672 - 735 Venerable Bede, English monk, theologian, and author of Ecclesiastical History of the English People  
  Islamic World     680 - 692 Second Muslim civil war following death of Muʿawiyah  
  Islamic World     680 Husayn, son of ʿAli and grandson of Muhammad, leads rebellion against Umayyad caliph Yazid and is martyred at Karbala, Iraq, creating paradigm of protest and suffering for Shiʿis; martyrdom on tenth day of Muharram is commemorated annually as ʿAshura by Shiʿis   Learn more
  Islamic World     691 Dome of the Rock completed in Jerusalem by Caliph ʿAbd al-Malik   Learn more
  Islamic World     691 Earliest extant coins from ʿUmayyad caliphate date to this time  
  Islamic World     692 - 1099 Muslims rule Jerusalem  
  Islamic World     699 Abu Hanifa (d. 767), founder of Hanafi school of Islamic law, dominant in Ottoman and Moghul empires   Learn more
Islamic World NonIslamic World          
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