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Logic

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The Oxford Dictionary of Islam What is This? Covers the religious, political, and social spheres of global Islam in the modern world

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    Logic

    Arabic mantiq (a term etymologically related to nutq, “utterance”). In the Quran, mantiq is described as a means for justification and the expression of truth, hence connected with the ancient Greek logos. Is technically used to designate a science of logic adapted from Aristotle and the Neoplatonists. Was called a science of balance by al-Tahanawi (eighteenth century) because it is used to weigh arguments. For Ibn Sina (d. 1037 ), it designated rules for passing from the known to the unknown in the acquisition of knowledge. Was extended to an intuitive or speculative arrival at the truth and then adapted to the mystical illuminationist philosophy (hikmet al-ishraq). Some grammarians (ninth century onward) highlighted logic's dependence on its linguistic or civilizational contexts, a view later held by Ludwig Wittgenstein (d. 1951 ).

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