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Minorities: Non-Muslim Minorities in Muslim Societies

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The Oxford Dictionary of Islam What is This? Covers the religious, political, and social spheres of global Islam in the modern world

    Minorities: Non-Muslim Minorities in Muslim Societies

    The status and treatment of non-Muslim minorities in Muslim societies have varied over time and space. A contract of protection (dhimmah) guaranteed life, body, property, freedom of movement, and religious practice in return for submission to Muslim rule. Practice, however, was closely conditioned by economic and political circumstances and did not always conform to the law; there are historical instances of discrimination against non-Muslims, although these are considered deviations from orthopraxy. In the modern world, some reformers call for reimposition of traditional dhimmi regulations; others call for full legal and political equality between Muslims and non-Muslims.

    See also Ahl al-Kitab; Dhimmi; Mawali

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