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Natural Science

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The Oxford Dictionary of Islam What is This? Covers the religious, political, and social spheres of global Islam in the modern world

    Natural Science

    Arabic ilm al-tabiah. Physics, in contemporary usage. Ranked as the lowest of the intellectual sciences by the Hellenized philosopher al-Farabi (d. ca. 950 ), who says that its subject matter is terrestrial bodies—animals, plants, and minerals; Ibn Khaldun (d. 1406 ) subsumes all sensible objects, including heavenly bodies, in the scope of this science. Islamic scientists made numerous advances in several branches of physics. For example, al-Kindi (d. 873 ) mathematized physical notions.

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