We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time. Find out more Ghaybah - Oxford Islamic Studies Online
Select Translation What is This? Selections include: The Koran Interpreted, a translation by A.J. Arberry, first published 1955; The Qur'an, translated by M.A.S. Abdel Haleem, published 2004; or side-by-side comparison view
Chapter: verse lookup What is This? Select one or both translations, then enter a chapter and verse number in the boxes, and click "Go."
:
  • Previous Result
  • Results
  • Highlight On / Off
  • Look It Up What is This? Highlight any word or phrase, then click the button to begin a new search.
  • Next Result

Ghaybah

By:
Norman Calder
Source:
The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World What is This? Provides global coverage of the Muslim experience from the end of the eighteenth century through the twentieth century

Ghaybah

The Arabic word ghaybah literally means absence, but in the theological constructs of the Twelvers (Ithnā ῾Asharīyah, a Shī῾ī sect) it designates the “occultation” of the twelfth imam, MỤhammad, son of al‐Ḥasan ibn ῾Alī al‐῾Askarī (d. 874). He has gone into hiding, but he remains present in the community, and will return as an eschatological figure (al‐mahdī, al‐qā'im). He will come with the sword, he will fill the earth with justice, and his reign will usher in the last days and the Resurrection.

The idea that a particular leader has not died and is but temporarily absent is perhaps universal. It had arisen among Shī῾ī groups already at the death of ῾Alī, the first imam (d. 661), and emerged again upon the deaths of various later imams. The enduring success of the Twelvers' formulation is probably owing to the prior existence of traditions (both Sunnī and Shī῾ī) which, drawing on ancient numerological preferences, mentioned twelve just rulers or leaders. Transforming the historical facts and integrating them into a mythic/theological structure was a process occupying generations of thinkers, who elaborated it in heresiographical works and in special studies of the Ghaybah. The standard version accounts for the disappearance of the last Imam by reference to excessive persecution.

The Twelvers believed the Ghaybah to have two stages. During the Lesser Occultation, the Imam continued to communicate with his community through four successive appointed agents, the last of whom died in 944 [see Wakālah al‐Khāṣsah, al‐]. During the Greater Occultation, which continues to the present, there is no special agent, although the Imāmī jurists (fuqahā'; sg., faqīh) are recognized in a general sense as agents of the Absent Imam [see Wakālah al‐῾Āmmah, al‐]. The doctrine of the Ghaybah enabled the Imāmīs to create a hermeneutical structure mirroring that already created by the Sunnīs. As the source of authority was absent, his authority resided now in literary texts. The first of these was the Qur'ān, the result of God's revelation to the Prophet. The second and much larger corpus was ḥadīth, as transmitted from the sinless imams. Thereafter, real practical authority depended on interpretation (hermeneutics), the monopoly of the learned classes, the ῾ulamā' and the fuqahā'. It is probable that these classes had achieved rudimentary existence prior to the Ghaybah and so facilitated the emergence of the doctrine.

Imāmī Shī῾ī political theory is conditioned by the doctrine of the Ghaybah. Since the imam was the only rightful leader of the community and administrator of the sharī῾ah, those who actually ruled during the Ghaybah were perceived to be usurpers and, in some sense, illegitimate. In time the theory emerged that the only rightful agent of the imam, the only one to administer the sharī῾ah in his absence, was the fully qualified faqīh. The ramifications of this theory secured to the jurists an independent income (since they, in the place of the imam, administered the tax known as khums) and prompted them to significant political activity. This was particularly noticeable in the late Qājār period in Iran, and more recently in the Islamic Revolution of 1979 in Iran.

See also Imam; Ithnā ῾Asharīyah; Mahdi; Shī῾ī Islam, historical overview article.

Bibliography

  • Sachedina, A. A. Islamic Messianism: The Idea of the Mahdi in Twelver Shi῾ism. Albany, N.Y., 1981.
  • Sachedina, A. A. The Just Ruler in Shi῾ite Islam: The Comprehensive Authority of the Jurist in Imamite Jurisprudence. New York, 1988.
  • Previous Result
  • Results
  • Highlight On / Off
  • Look It Up What is This? Highlight any word or phrase, then click the button to begin a new search.
  • Next Result
Oxford University Press

© 2020. All Rights Reserved. Cookie Policy | Privacy Policy | Legal Notice