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Iran, Islamic Republic of

[Pers. Jumhūrī-yi Islāmī-yi Īrān].

Country in west Asia with its capital at Tehran. Iran has an area of c. 1,648,000 sq. km, bordered in the north by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and the Caspian Sea, in the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, in the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman and in the west by Turkey and Iraq (see fig.). Large areas of the country consist of mountainous regions or desert; only about 10% of the land is arable and habitable. Iran has a population of more than 65 million (2007 estimate), the majority being Shi῾a Muslim (the religion of the State) and the remainder comprising Sunni Muslims, Armenian Christians and other religious minorities. The official language is Farsi (Persian), and about 25% of Iranians speak Turkic languages. The principal Turkic groups are the Turkmen in the northeast and the Qashqa῾i around Shiraz in the southwest. In the northwest the Kurds, who constitute about 5% of the population, have a distinct culture and language, and the Lur and Bakhtyari tribes in the west and the Baluchs in the east also maintain their own distinct traditions. Oil, discovered in the early 20th century, is an important source of revenue, and there are reserves of natural gas, coal, copper and iron ore. As well as oil refining, the manufacture of carpets is a major industry. Iran has traditionally been one of the most creative of the Islamic lands, and its artistic traditions are covered in the relevant sections of architecture and the individual media such as ceramics, metalware, etc. This article covers the arts produced in the country in the 20th century and early 21st.

I. History. II. Architecture. III. Painting, sculpture and calligraphy. IV. Decorative arts. V. Archaeological sites, museums and collecting.

I. History

Under the Qajar dynasty (r. 1779–1924) Iran experienced a period of relative peace and renewed contact with the Western world: Nasir al-Din (r. 1848–96) was the first Iranian monarch to visit Europe, traveling there three times. His son, Muzaffar al-Din (r. 1896–1907), however, was forced by popular unrest to convene the Majlis (National Assembly), which met for the first time in 1906 and provided Iran with a constitution. Muhammad ῾Ali (r. 1907–9) resorted to absolute rule, but he was deposed and replaced by Ahmad (r. 1909–24), aged 11. During World War I, Turkish, Russian and British forces intervened in Iran. In 1921 a coup d’état was staged by the army officer Riza Khan and two years later he was appointed Prime Minister. In 1924 the Majlis declared the rule of the Qajar dynasty terminated, and the monarchy was entrusted to Riza Khan, who ascended the throne as Riza Shah Pahlavi (r. 1925–41). During the 1920s and 1930s he introduced a series of measures to modernize Iran and develop its economy, including the expansion of educational facilities. After British and Russian forces invaded the country in 1941, he was succeeded by his son Muhammad Riza (r. 1941–79). The occupying armies withdrew at the end of World War II, and a planned economic development was initiated in 1949. This political and economic phase lasted until the Revolution of 1979, when an exiled religious leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (1902–89), returned to Iran and established an Islamic republic. There followed a period of rapid cultural change and upheaval, exacerbated by a war with Iraq (1980–88) that devastated the economy. After a reformist president Muhammad Khatami was elected in 1997, conservatives reasserted control and an ultra-conservative layman Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was elected in August 2005. Despite crackdowns, art continues to flourish, not only in the traditional media, but also in wall paintings and posters.

Iran, Islamic Republic of

Map of Iran; those areas with separate entries in this encyclopedia are distinguished by Cross-reference type

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  • P. Avery, G. Hambly, and C. Melville, eds.: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic (1991), vii of The Cambridge History of Iran (Cambridge, 1968–91)
  • A. M. Ansari: Modern Iran since 1921: The Pahlavis and After (London, 2003)

II. Architecture

Compared with the range of religious and secular buildings erected in the 19th century, Qajar patronage in the early 20th century was slight, although the palace of Dowshantepe constructed for Muzaffar al-Din to the east of Tehran was a notable amalgam of Iranian and European conventions. With the commencement of Pahlavi rule, new priorities came to the fore, and buildings dating from the Qajar era or earlier began to be replaced by modern structures. Programs of urbanization and town planning were introduced in which broad avenues and apartment blocks altered the character of traditional urban life. This trend continued with the oil boom in the 1970s when large-scale investment in housing resulted in the construction of ill-suited prefabricated buildings. Large public monuments were erected such as the 1971 modernist triumphal arch originally called the Shahyad Tower, renamed the Azadi (“Freedom”) Monument after the 1979 revolution (see color pl. 2:X, fig. 2).

Aware of this dislocation of traditional values, such architects as nader Ardalan and kamran Diba began to confront the issue in their work. Ardalan linked an appreciation of traditional architecture with such modern requirements as the prevention of energy waste. His Iran Center for Management Studies (1972) in Tehran, for example, was designed in the form of a madrasa and used local construction methods and labor. Diba was concerned with the preservation of traditional Iranian culture through urban renewal projects. His work included the new town of Shushtar (1974–80) and the campus of Jondi Shapour University (1968–78) at Ahwaz. He also designed the Museum of Contemporary Art (1976; with Ardalan) in Tehran and became the museum’s first director (1976–8). Successful restoration projects in Iran included work on the Safavid monuments of ῾Ali Qapu, Chihil Situn and Hasht Bihisht (completed in 1977) in Isfahan, by the Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente (IsMEO) on behalf of the National Organization for Conservation of Historic Monuments of Iran (NOCHMI). Less successful was the artificial isolation of conserved buildings in such cities as Hamadan, Mashhad and Shiraz, which disfigured the urban setting. The upheaval of the 1979 Revolution and the war with Iraq put a halt to many architectural projects, although the construction of the large mausoleum (begun in 1989) of Ayatollah Khomeini to the south of Tehran was an important enterprise.

Many regions of Iran display distinct vernacular architecture (see Vernacular architecture, §VIII). In those parts of the country with high rainfall and abundant timber, especially on the shores of the Caspian Sea and the northern slopes of the Elburz Mountains, buildings are designed to shed rain and sloping roofs are common. Such buildings contrast with those of the plateau where mud is used. If timber is available flat roofs are constructed but in other regions roofs are made of mud-brick or more durable baked brick to create an astonishing variety of domes and vaults. Not only mosques and shrines but houses, cisterns, mills and animal shelters receive this treatment. Also noteworthy is the wide range of vernacular structures, which include the Wind catcher, the ice-house and the pigeon tower.


  • R. Rainer: Traditional Building in Iran (Graz, 1977)
  • K. Diba: Kamran Diba: Buildings and Projects (Stuttgart, 1981)
  • E. Beazeley and M. Harverson: Living with the Desert: Working Buildings of the Iranian Plateau (Warminster, 1982)
  • K. Rizvi: “Religious Icon and National Symbol: The Tomb of Ayatollah Khomeini in Iran,” Muqarnas, xx (2003), pp. 209–24
  • V. Daniel, B. Shafei and S. Soroushiani: Nikolai Markov Architecture (Tehran, 2004) Iran: Architecture for Changing Societies (Turin, 2004)
  • B. Shafei, S. Soroushiani and V. Daniel: Karim Taherzadeh Behzad Architecture (Tehran, 2005)
  • M. H. Semsar and F. Saraian: Golestan Palace Photo Archive, Catalogue of Qajar selected Photographs (Tehran, n.d.)

III. Painting, sculpture and calligraphy

In the late 19th century and the early 20th Iranian painting was influenced by European art, especially in the works of the poet laureate Mahmoud Khan (1813–93) and Muhammad Ghaffari (see Ghaffari, §III), who studied in Europe and adopted a naturalistic style. In 1911 Muhammad Ghaffari established an art school in Tehran that promoted Western-style painting, and he directed the school until 1928. He was instrumental in introducing easel painting to Iran and fostered basic changes in Iranian painting and art appreciation. When the College of Fine Arts opened at Tehran University in 1938, a number of Muhammad Ghaffari’s disciples occupied key positions on the staff.

Revivalism in Iranian painting was also prominent in the early 20th century. One of the main representatives of revivalism or the “traditional” school of painting was Husayn Bihzad (1894–1968). He served an apprenticeship with painters in the Tehran bazaar and specialized in works in the style of Timurid and Safavid paintings (see Illustration, §§V, D and E, and VI, A), for both Western and Iranian patrons. In 1935 he visited Paris for 13 months where he studied Islamic manuscripts in French collections. He also developed a more personal style, which was a simplified version of the traditional style incorporating elements of Western pictorial conventions, and sometimes worked on the scale of easel paintings. In 1946 he became an employee of the Office of Archaeological Works; he also taught painting and participated in exhibitions at home and abroad.

Popular art, meanwhile, continued in Iran in the “coffee-house” genre of murals and oil paintings inspired by folk traditions, with their themes taken from the Shāhnāma (“Book of kings”), romances or from accounts of the lives of Shi῾ite imams. Many of the artists who worked in this style were anonymous, but some signed their works and gained recognition, including Muhammad Mudabber and Husayn Qullar-Aghasi.

After World War II a greater number of Iranian painters studied in Europe and the United States, and by the 1950s the modernist movement in Iran had received official backing from the Department (later Ministry) of Fine Arts. An important advocate of modernism was Jalil Ziapur (b. 1928), a graduate of the College of Fine Arts who studied in France under André Lhote (1885–1962). He founded an art society and the monthly publication Khurus-i Jangi (“The Fighting Cock”), which championed modernism and was a rallying-point for avant-garde painters and writers. In 1954 the painter Marcos Gregorian (b. 1925) returned to Iran after training in Italy and opened the first art gallery (1954–9) in Tehran. In 1958 he also organized the first of the five Tehran Biennale exhibitions undertaken by the Department of Fine Arts. The last Biennale, held in 1966, included works by 37 Pakistani and Turkish artists, which was a step towards creating an Asian Biennale.

In 1960 the College of Decorative Arts was established in Tehran, which fostered a less formal approach to art than the College of Fine Arts and was an influential training ground for artists. At this time an art movement known as the Saqqakhana school developed. Its artists, among whom were the painters hussein Zenderoudi and Faramarz Pilaram (1937–83) and the sculptor parviz Tanavoli (see color pl. 2:XI, fig. 1) combined motifs derived from Shi῾ite iconography and folklore with Western techniques. Other artists in the 1960s and 1970s who combined Iranian subject matter with modern Western styles and techniques included Massoud Arabshahi, Nasser Ovissi (b. 1934), Mansur Qandriz (1935–65), Jazeh Tabatabai (1931–2008) and Sadeq Tabrizi (b. 1938). Compositions inspired by calligraphy increasingly preoccupied such artists as Zenderoudi. Traditional forms of calligraphy were promoted by the Iranian Calligraphers Association, which became active in 1966 and organized calligraphy classes in major Iranian cities.

Iran, Islamic Republic of

1. Hossein Amanat: Azadi Monument, Tehran, Iran, c. 1971; photo credit: Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom; see Iran, §II

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After 1979 paintings affirming the spirit and ideals of the Revolution became important, as did poster art (which had developed in Iran since the 1940s), backed by official sponsorship. Works that illustrated the theme of martyrdom were notable for incorporating Surrealist elements. Naturalism and traditionalism in art continued in the works of such painters as Mansur Negargar Husayni (b. 1951), a graduate of the College of Fine Arts.

Calligraphy also flourished in Iran and abroad. Shams Anwari Alhuseyni (b. 1937), for example, who studied calligraphy under the brothers Husayn Mirkhani and Hasan Mirkhani at the College of Fine Arts (1953–6) and settled in West Germany in 1957, staged his first one-man exhibition at the Rautenstrauch-Joest-Museum, Cologne, in 1990.

Many contemporary Iranian artists combine painting with other arts such as calligraphy or photography. Farhad Moshiri, for example, paints large oils on canvas depicting monumental jars and bowls with rich textured surfaces and flowing calligraphy. The photographer Bahman Jalali (b. 1944) mixes signs and portraits, and Malekeh Nayiny (b. 1955) overlays the garments in old black-and-white portraits with early 20th-century postage stamps of exotic birds. The paintings and drawings of Khosrow Hassanzadeh (b. 1963) are visual diaries that incorporate his own writings, his family, self-portraits, and his experience of the Iran–Iraq war.


  • Enc. Iran: “Hosayn Behzad”
  • Tavoos/Tāwūs, 1999– [bilingual journal devoted to Iranian art]; also available on-line at http://www.tavoosmag.com (accessed June 11, 2008)
  • B. W. Robinson: “Some Modern Persian Miniatures,” The Studio, cxxxv (1948), pp. 78–85
  • N. Naderpour: Nasser Ovissi (Tehran, 1966)
  • A. Tadjvidi: L’Art moderne en Iran (Tehran, 1967)
  • Modern Persian Painting (exh. cat. by K. Emani; New York, Columbia U., Cent. Iran Stud., 1968)
  • Iranian Calligraphy: A Selection of Works from 15th to 20th Century: The Aydin Aghdashloo Collection in Negaristan Museum of Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Iranian Art (exh. cat. by A. Aghdashloo; Tehran, Nigaristan Mus., 1975)
  • L. S. Diba, J. Bahnam and A. Aghdashlu: Iranian Wedding Contracts of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Tehran, Nigaristan Mus., 1976)
  • Calligraphy from Iran (exh. cat., London, Commonwealth Inst., 1976)
  • Saqqakhaneh (exh. cat. by K. Emami and P. L. Wilson; Tehran, Mus. Contemp. A., 1977)
  • Les Peintres populaires de la légende persane (exh. cat., Paris, Maison Iran, n.d.)
  • Poster Art in Iran (exh. cat. by N. Rohani and M. Momayez; Tehran, Mus. Contemp. A., 1978)
  • E. Yarshater: “Contemporary Persian Painting,” Highlights of Persian Art, ed. R. Ettinghausen and E. Yarshater (Boulder, CO, 1979)
  • W. L. Hanaway jr: “The Symbolism of Persian Revolutionary Posters,” Iran since the Revolution, ed. B. M. Rosen (Boulder, CO, 1985)
  • A. Sreberny-Mohammadi and A. Mohammadi: “The Islamic Republic and the World: Images, Propaganda, Intentions, and Results,” Post-Revolutionary Iran, ed. H. Amirahmadi and M. Parvin (Boulder, CO and London, 1988), pp. 75–104
  • A. Schimmel: “Shams Anwari Alhuseyni,” A. & Islam. World, xix (1990), pp. 25–8
  • S. Balaghi and L. Gumpert, eds.: Picturing Iran: Art, Society and Revolution (New York, 2002)
  • Mirza Aqa Imami, 1881–1955(Tehran, 2002)
  • Sarmashq (Examples of Calligraphy) Selected Works from International Meeting of Calligraphy in the Islamic World (Tehran, 2002)
  • I. Iskandari and H. Lezgi: “A Study of Traditional Elements in Iran’s Contemporary Painting,” Anthology of Iranian Studies/Majmū῾ āt Maqālālāt muṭāla῾ āt Īrānī, viii (2004), pp. 83–106
  • H. Chanani: Bibliography of Iranian Graphic Arts (Tehran, 2005)
  • W. Floor: Wall Paintings and Other Figurative Mural Art in Qajar Iran (Costa Mesa, CA, 2005)
  • Atelier Kaboud (exh. cat. by P. Tanavoli; Tehran, Mus. Contemp. A., 2005)
  • H. Keshmirshekan: “Discourses on Postrevolutionary Iranian Art: Neotraditionalism during the 1990s,” Muqarnas, xxiii (2006), pp. 131–58
  • The Book of Year Bismillah (Tehran, 2006)
  • Word into Art: Artists of the Modern Middle East (exh. cat. by V. Porter; London, BM, 2006)
  • …And to the Beginning of the Word (Tehran, 2007)

IV. Decorative arts

Foremost among the decorative arts is the manufacture of carpets. Made in a great variety of sizes and shapes, with a wide range of motifs and patterns, they are woven on fixed vertical looms in towns and villages and on light horizontal looms among tribes on migration. The revival of the Iranian carpet industry began in the 1870s, when Tabriz merchants produced carpets for export and foreign firms such as Ziegler and Company of Manchester became involved in carpet weaving. In the 20th century the carpet industry expanded further and underwent such changes as the increasing use of synthetic dyes instead of vegetable dyes. In 1935 the Iranian Carpet Company was founded to produce quality carpets. Important carpet manufacturing centers in the late 20th century included Arak, Isfahan, Kashan, Kirman, Mashhad, Na῾in, Qum, Tabriz and Yazd. Each center or area has its own characteristic designs and methods of production. Some modern carpets imitate traditional designs, but on a monumental scale. In 1975, for example, an Isfahan carpet measuring c. 10 m sq., woven by 28 women simultaneously, was ordered by the Shah for the Parliament Building in Tehran. The Persepolis carpet, 6.75×4 m, commissioned by Assadollah Khan, the deputy governor of Fars province, in 1977, recreates a series of images from the Achaemenid site. Kurdish textiles are made in Bijar, Senna (Sanandaj) and the Zanjan, Hamadan, Songur and Varamin regions. They have strong deep hues and geometric renditions of floral patterns, insects, animals and abstract forms, with the exception of the Sennas, which have fine textures and elegant curved floral designs.

A wide range of metalwork is made in Iran, including caskets, plates, bowls and trays, often worked in relief and with embossing and chasing. There are various regional variations; distinct belts, buckles, jewelry and weapons, for example, were traditionally produced by the Kurds. High-quality metalwork, including jewelry and regalia in precious metals, was also encouraged by royal patronage. Pottery is manufactured in small, localized workshops in a number of centers. Wares with underglaze designs painted in blue were produced at Na῾in (until 1935) and Maibud. In the early 20th century ceramic tiles were an important feature in architectural decoration. When the takya of Mu῾avin al-Mulk in Kirmanshah was restored and refurbished c.1917–25, for example, it was decorated with painted tiles under the supervision of Hasan Tihrani, a tilemaker who came from Tehran with four assistants and constructed kilns near the site. The tiles depict the tragedy of Karbala, portraits of leaders, dervishes, landscapes and ancient Iranian monuments. The art of inlaying wood with ivory, bone, mother-of-pearl, brass, silver or different shades of wood is still practiced by craftsmen in such centers as Isfahan and Shiraz, especially for tables, boxes, picture frames and similar items. Painted lacquer, which flourished under the Qajars, has declined since the early 20th century. The lacquer painters who used the name Simiruni at the turn of the century painted single figures and scenes of almost photographic realism under the influence of imported Russian pieces, and other work was executed in the revived Safavid style; some finely painted lacquer, for example, was produced by ῾Abd al-Latif and ῾Abd al-Husayn, both of whom enjoyed the title sanī῾ humāyūn (“royal painter”).


  • A. C. Edwards: The Persian Carpet: A Survey of the Carpet-weaving Industry of Persia (London, 1953)
  • V. B. Meen and A. D. Tushingham: Crown Jewels of Iran (Toronto, 1968)
  • M. Centlivres-Demont: Une Communauté de potiers en Iran: Le Center de Meybod (Yazd) (Wiesbaden, 1971)
  • J. Gluck and S. H. Gluck, eds.: A Survey of Persian Handicraft: A Pictorial Introduction to the Contemporary Folk Arts and Art Crafts of Modern Iran (New York, 1977)
  • The Qashqā῾i of Iran: World of Islam Festival 1976 (exh. cat., Manchester, U. Manchester, Whitworth A.G., 1976)
  • J. Dhamija: Living Tradition of Iran’s Crafts (New Delhi, 1979)
  • P. Tanavoli: Shahsavan: Iranian Rugs and Textiles (New York, 1985)
  • W. Eagleton: An Introduction to Kurdish Rugs and Other Weavings (Buckhurst Hill, 1988)
  • P. Tanavoli: Kings, Heroes and Lovers: Pictorial Rugs from the Tribes and Villages of Iran (London, 1994)
  • L. M. Helfgott: Ties that Bind: A Social History of the Iranian Carpet (Washington, DC, 1994)
  • P. Tanavoli: Riding in Splendour: Horse and Camel Trappings from Tribal Iran (Tehran, 1998)
  • P. Tanavoli and A. Neshati: Persian Flatweaves: A Survey of Flatwoven Floor Covers and Hangings and Royal Masnads (Woodbridge, 2002)
  • R. Tapper and J. Thompson, eds.: The Nomadic Peoples of Iran (London, 2002)
  • W. Floor: “The Woodworking Craft and its Products in Iran,” Muqrans, xxiii (2006), pp. 159–90

V. Archaeological sites, museums and collections

European travelers began to study monuments and remains in Iran from the 17th century onwards, and the first archaeological excavations were conducted in the 19th century; the most important was undertaken by French archaeologists at Susa, the Elamite capital. In 1928 andré Godard was invited by the Iranian government to establish an archaeological service, make an inventory of historic monuments and commence restoration work. In the 1930s such scholars as ernst Herzfeld and arthur upham Pope were also active in Iran, and excavations took place at Bishapur, Nishapur, Persepolis, Rayy and other sites. Since World War II excavations have also been carried out at such pre-Islamic sites as Hasanlu, Pasargadae, Takht-i Sulayman and elsewhere, but since the establishment of the Islamic Republic, most excavations are conducted by Iranians alone, and the results are published mainly in Persian.

In Tehran, the Ethnographical Museum and Crown Jewels Museum (displayed in the Bank Melli) both date from 1938. The National Museum of Iran, Iran Bastan, was founded in 1946 and now comprises two buildings. One houses pre-Islamic artifacts and is the principal archaeological collection in the country. The other, inaugurated in 1996, contains works of Islamic art. In 1957 the State acquired a collection of art formed by Abdullah Rahimi, which formed the nucleus of the Decorative Arts Museum, inaugurated in 1961; the majority of items in this museum date from the 19th and 20th centuries. Other collections in the capital include the Riza ῾Abbasi Museum, Gulistan Palace Museum and the Nigaristan Museum, the latter founded in 1975 when Queen Farah Pahlavi acquired a collection of Qajar paintings (ex-Julian Amery priv. col.). In the 1970s the Farah Pahlavi Foundation funded several museums and cultural centers, including the Museum of Contemporary Art (1976). Specific arts are displayed in the Carpet Museum (opened 1978) and the Museum of Glass and Ceramics (inaugurated 1978). The latter, in a 19th-century building renovated in 1976 by Hans Hollein (b. 1934), houses glassware and ceramics from prehistoric times to the 20th century. Outside the capital museums are located in such centers as Isfahan, Mashhad (Iman Riza Shrine Mus.), Qazvin, Qum and Shiraz (Pars Mus.).

Collections of 20th-century Iranian art were formed by Queen Farah, which she donated to various museums; by the prime minister ῾Abbas Hovaida, who amassed in the 1960s and 1970s a collection for his office; and by such individuals as Kamran Diba, Ibrahim Gulistan and the Lajevardi family. By the 1970s corporate collectors had also emerged, led by the Behshahr Industrial Group, which collected c. 400 Iranian paintings. Under Pahlavi rule, government ministries commissioned artists to produce work for public institutions, and exhibition halls were opened. Various commercial galleries also opened in the 1960s and 1970s. After the Revolution, the Museum of Contemporary Art in Tehran displayed pro-Revolutionary art and propaganda but later re-installed some of its permanent collection and exhibited the work of prominent Iranian artists and developed thematic exhibitions that merged traditional and modern art. Other museums halted their activities after 1979 to revise their policies, but despite the cooling of relations between Iran and the West, Iran still mounts exhibitions of national treasures that travel to international venues.


  • Y. Zoka and M. H. Semsar: Iranian Art Treasures in the Prime Ministry of Iran’s Collections (Tehran, 1978)
  • Golestan Palace Library: A Portfolio of Miniature Paintings and Calligraphy (Tehran, 2000)
  • Īrān Bāstān, Nigāhī bih Ganjīneh-yi Mūze-yi Milli-yi Īrān [Iran Bastan: A Look at the Treasures of the National Museum of Iran] (Tehran, 1380/2001)
  • Gardens of Iran: Ancient Wisdom, New Visions (exh. cat., Tehran, Mus. Contemp. A., 2004)
  • Forgotten Empire: The World of Ancient Persia (exh. cat., ed. J. Curtis and N. Tallis; London, BM, 2005)
  • Persia: Fragments from Paradise: Treasures from the National Museum of Iran/Persia: Fragmentos del paraíso: Tesoros del Museo Nacional de Irán (exh. cat., Mexico City, Inst. N. Antropol. & Hist., 2007)


  • Enc. Islam/2; Enc. Iran.
  • H. E. Wulff: The Traditional Crafts of Persia: Their Development, Technology, and Influence on Western Civilizations (Cambridge, MA and London, 1966)
  • E. Yarshater, ed.: Iran Faces the Seventies (New York, 1971)
  • D. Behnam: Cultural Policy in Iran (Paris, 1973)
  • W. Eilers: “Educational and Cultural Development in Iran during the Pahlavi Era,” Iran under the Pahlavis, ed. G. Lenczowski (Stanford, CA, 1978)
  • N. Pourjavady, ed.: The Splendour of Iran, 3 vols. (London, 2001) [excellent pictures]
  • H. Sarshar, ed.: Esther’s Children: A Portrait of Iranian Jews (Berkeley, CA, 2002)
  • G. Curatola and G. Scarcia: The Art and Architecture of Persia, trans. M. Shore (New York, 2007)
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