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Select Translation What is This? Selections include: The Koran Interpreted, a translation by A.J. Arberry, first published 1955; The Qur'an, translated by M.A.S. Abdel Haleem, published 2004; or side-by-side comparison view
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Displaying: abd - ins

  • Abdülhamid II (Biography)

    Abdülhamid II ( 1842 – 1918 ) was the thirty-fourth Ottoman sultan ( r. 1876 – 1909 ). A profound political and economic crisis ...

    Source: The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

  • Aitmatov, Chingiz (Biography)

    Chingiz Torekulovich Aitmatov ( b. 1928 ) (also spelled Aytmatov) was an important figure in late Soviet culture and is the best-known Kyrgyz author ...

    Source: The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

  • Al-Jazeera (Subject Entry)

    See Jazeera, al- . ...

    Source: The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

  • Al-Qaʿida (Subject Entry)

    See Qaʿida, al- . ...

    Source: The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

  • Azerbaijan, Islam in (Subject Entry)

    Conquered by the Russian Empire in the early 1800s, Azerbaijan remained under Russian rule until 1918 . The first Republic of Azerbaijan ( 1918 ...

    Source: The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

  • Basmachis (Subject Entry)

    The term “Basmachi” was applied by Russians to opponents of the Bolsheviks who were active in Central Asia between the Russian Revolution and the ...

    Source: The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

  • Bin Laden, Osama (Biography)

    Global jihadist, Saudi militant, and founder of al-Qaʿida, Osama bin Laden ( 1957 –2011) remains an icon for Islamic extremism and violent opposition to ...

    Source: The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

  • Carpets (Subject Entry)

    Carpet weaving constitutes one of the most well-known Islamic art forms, whether manifested in the more familiar knotted-pile carpets or the larger variety of ...

    Source: The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

  • Caucasus (Subject Entry)

    The Caucasus, also known as Caucasia, refers to a mountainous region that lies between the Caspian and Black Seas. The Caucasus Mountains are traditionally ...

    Source: The Islamic World: Past and Present

  • Communism and Islam (Subject Entry)

    Interaction between communism and Islam can be found in three areas: theories of human society, competing social structures, and political organizations, which claim the ...

    Source: The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

  • Crimean Khanate (Subject Entry)

    From ancient times the Crimea has been a crossroads for various peoples ranging from Scythian and Sarmatian nomads to Goth and Hun invaders, and ...

    Source: The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

  • Diaspora and Exile (Subject Entry)

    The terms diaspora and exile are sometimes used interchangeably to refer to people forced to leave traditional homelands or otherwise violently dispersed. Diaspora was ...

    Source: The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

  • Europe, Islam in (Subject Entry)

    In the late twentieth century there were about eighteen million Muslims in Europe, with approximately nine million each in the western and southeastern parts ...

    Source: The Oxford Dictionary of Islam

  • Fakhreddin, Rizaeddin (Biography)

    Rizaeddin Fakhreddin ( 1859 – 1936 ) was a Volga-Ural Muslim religious scholar and reformist. One of the most prominent Muslims of the Volga-Ural ...

    Source: The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

  • First Steps toward Civilizing the Russian Muslims (Primary Source)

    Ismail Bey Gasprinskii (Crimea, 1851–1914), Tatar reformer, educator, and publicist, was the most influential architect of Islamic modernism among the Turkic subjects of the ...

    By: Ismail Bey Gasprinskii

  • Hazāra (Subject Entry)

    The Hazāra are an ethnic group concentrated in the region of central Afghanistan known as the Hazārajāt. Hazāra are also found in smaller numbers ...

    Source: The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

  • Hizb ut-Tahrir (Subject Entry)

    See Hizb al-Tahrīr al-Islāmī . ...

    Source: The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

  • Homosexuality (Subject Entry)

    The Qurʿān is generally taken to condemn homosexual acts and in particular sodomy ( liwāṭ ). There are references to the people of Lot ...

    Source: The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

  • Houses (Subject Entry)

    Although scholars and architects in the past sought to identify an essential “Islamic house,” the dwellings that Muslims have actually constructed and occupied are ...

    Source: The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

  • Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs (Subject Entry)

    First launched in 1978 and incorporated in London in 1983 , the Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs ( IMMA ) was established with the ...

    Source: The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

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