Citation for Intoxicants

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"Intoxicants." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Jul 6, 2020. <>.


"Intoxicants." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, (accessed Jul 6, 2020).


The Quran prohibits fermented drinks because of their intoxicating effect. For Muslims all association with intoxicating drinks—including buying, selling, and delivering them—is forbidden. Drinking spread with Muslim territorial victories, leading Umar I to fix a punishment of eighty lashes for consuming intoxicating drinks. In Muslim courts such drinks became common nevertheless, and poetry in praise of wine blossomed as a literary tradition. Nabidh refers to wine or nonintoxicating drinks made from soaked fruits. Khamr refers to the product of fermentation. In the modern world, the prohibition on intoxicants has been extended to include narcotics.

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