Citation for Abdulhamid II

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" Abdulhamid II ." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Jul 6, 2020. <>.


" Abdulhamid II ." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, (accessed Jul 6, 2020).

Abdulhamid II

(d. 1918 )

Thirty-fourth Ottoman sultan (r. 1876 – 1909 ). His reign faced overwhelming difficulties: an insolvent treasury, violent nationalist movements in the Balkans, antireform movements among some Muslims, and increasing foreign intervention. A disastrous military defeat by the Russians ( 1877 ) resulted in major territorial concessions and an influx of Muslim refugees from the ceded lands. Nevertheless, Abdulhamid's reign expanded public works, including highways, railroads, and telegraph lines. Education, literacy, and judicial services improved significantly. In the wake of rising nationalist sentiments and alienated religious and army groups, Abdulhamid was dethroned in 1909 and spent the rest of his life under house arrest.

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