Citation for Pluralism

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"Pluralism." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Jan 27, 2021. <>.


"Pluralism." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, (accessed Jan 27, 2021).


Arabic taaddudiya, Persian takththur gara'i. Inclusiveness that acknowledges the legitimacy of other faiths. In general, Muslim pluralists stress that the Quran recognizes salvific value in other religions, particularly Judaism and Christianity, with whom it is linked through shared prophets. Some Muslims accept other faiths as not merely inferior manifestations of religiosity, but variant forms of individual and communal responses to the presence of the transcendent in human life. Proponents of this view find support in the Islamic teaching that all persons are created by God with a disposition that potentially leads to knowledge of God (fitrah). The mainstream Islamic viewpoint, however, is that Islam is superior to other religions; while protecting individuals' rights to practice the religion of their choice privately, Islam sees itself as the final revelation, perfect and complete, which corrects the errors of earlier religious communities. Its law must therefore remain dominant and may not be challenged by other legal systems.

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