Citation for Zahiri

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"Zahiri." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Jul 14, 2020. <>.


"Zahiri." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, (accessed Jul 14, 2020).


School of Islamic law founded by Abu Sulayman Daud al-Zahiri in the ninth century. Flourished in Spain, particularly under the leadership of the jurist Ibn Hazm . Extinct by the fourteenth century, although it is recognized by four extant Sunni schools. Declared the Quran, hadith, and consensus of Companions as the only acceptable sources of authority. Rejected the practice of taqlid (imitation of precedent). Based its legal principles on a literal (zahir) interpretation of Quran and hadith, rejecting analogy (qiyas) and juristic preference (istihsan). Emphasized the importance of applying the rules of grammar to the text in order to determine the revealed meaning. Objected to the use of reason in favor of revelation.

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