Citation for Capitulations

Citation styles are based on the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Ed., and the MLA Style Manual, 2nd Ed..

MLA

"Capitulations." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Mar 7, 2021. <http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e409>.

Chicago

"Capitulations." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e409 (accessed Mar 7, 2021).

Capitulations

Commercial privileges granted by Muslim states, especially the Ottoman and Persian Empires, to Christian European states to conduct trade. Based on the principle of aman (safe conduct), capitulations set custom rates; established the security of life, property, and religion; and established channels to settle legal disputes. As the balance of power shifted toward western Europe, they were used to obtain privileges and extraterritorial status for Europeans and their clients in Muslim lands, so that by the nineteenth century they became instruments of imperialist exploitation. They were abolished in the Ottoman Empire in 1914 , in Iran in 1928 , and in Egypt in 1937 .

© Oxford University Press 2007-2008. All Rights Reserved