Citation for Afghanistan, Islam in

Citation styles are based on the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Ed., and the MLA Style Manual, 2nd Ed..

MLA

"Afghanistan, Islam in." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Ed. John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Jul 10, 2020. <http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e55>.

Chicago

"Afghanistan, Islam in." In The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. , edited by John L. Esposito. Oxford Islamic Studies Online, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e55 (accessed Jul 10, 2020).

Afghanistan, Islam in

Approximately 88 percent of modern-day Afghanistan's population is Sunni; 12 percent is Shii. Islam arrived in the eighth century during the expansion of the Islamic empire. Various rulers have legitimized their rule based on protection of Islam and personal piety. From the 1920s until the 1970s Afghanistan was dependent upon the Soviet Union. Communist parties were supported, and Islam was restricted to rituals and legal injunctions. The Communist government ruled 1978 – 92 after a Soviet-sponsored coup d'etat, resulting in a crackdown on Islamist movements, which became the opposition. During Communist rule Islamists emerged among university faculty and students who sought an Islamic state; they joined with traditional tribal and religious leaders to form the mujahidin and fought a nationwide jihad to drive out the Soviets (achieved in 1989 ) and Afghan Communists. An Islamic state was declared in 1992 . The country then fell into bloody interethnic and sectarian warfare. The Islamist movement split from within; two major factions were led by Burhanuddin Rabbani and Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and were funded by Pakistan and Iran. Continued corruption and disorder in the country led to the takeover of Kabul by the Taliban in 1996 . The Taliban consolidated control over approximately 90 percent of Afghanistan and placed the country under an extremist interpretation of Islam, including strict enforcement of segregation of sexes, full veiling in the burqa for women, a prohibition against women working outside the home or seeking education, and destruction of idols, such as the fifth-century Buddha statues destroyed in 2000 .

See also Durrani Dynasty

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